Basic information about AS
Natural Anabolic Steroids
Anabolic-androgenic steroids are referred to as male sex hormones. The most important of these hormones is testosterone.
Testosterone is produced in testes (testes) in men. It is synthesized from cholesterol. The simplified principle of regulation of his work can be described as follows:
When testosterone levels fall below a given point (which is different for each individual), the intermozog (hypothalamus) begins to secrete GnRH (Gonadotropic Raeleasing Hormone). By acting in the anterior pituitary gland (brain tag), it increases the production of LH (Luteinizing Hormone) and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone). In men, LH stimulates Leydig cells in the testes and stimulates them to produce androgenic hormones, i.e. testosterone. FSH, together with testosterone, stimulates Sertoli cells in the testes, which stimulate sperm production and maturation. Sperms need to "swim" in testosterone to mature properly.
There is probably no need to discuss where most testosterone goes. The remaining testosterone is released into the bloodstream, where 97-99% is absorbed by the liver. The remaining percentages enter freely into the genital organs, but mainly into muscle cells, where under certain circumstances they can promote muscle growth.
At this point, the blood testosterone level is already high and the reverse process is triggered. Testosterone acts in the hypothalamus and inhibits GnRH production. There is also a transformation of a portion of testosterone into estrogens (female sex hormones). This feedback serves to maintain and regulate the level of testosterone in the body.
Said mechanism of action is so-called. os hypothalamus - pituitary - testes. For men aged 20-50 years, on average, 7 mg of testosterone per day is produced naturally. The amount of LH and FSH production is always the same, their relationships correlate with each other. Only a small part of testosterone production causes muscle growth. The organism is programmed so that sperm formation is more important than muscle growth, ie. Spermatogenesis is a priority. This process is repeated every 1-3 hours.
The influence of testosterone on the body:
promotes the metabolism of proteins, while limiting their catabolism
stimulates growth target organs
is involved in the sexual characteristics of man (puberty supports enlargement of the larynx and
the gain of the vocal cords, supports the growth of a typical body hair, increases the secretion of sebaceous glands,
increases muscle mass )
is closely related to the mental states of sexual desire, libido and aggression
has an anabolic effect on muscles, bones and skin
closes epiphyses of long bones
affects the size of the seminal canals and testicles
affects the psychological perception of reality and perspectives, especially in relation to body vision
identity and personality
In medical practice, testosterone is applied when the patient's hormone production is abnormally low. It is also prescribed in the treatment of breast cancer in women. In large doses it may have a beneficial effect on some life-threatening blood diseases. During puberty it promotes growth in height and at the same time causes the development of male characteristic traits (growth of body hair, voice, testes, penis, skeletal muscles ...).
Synthetic anabolic steroids
Metabolic changes leading to protein, fat and carbohydrate synthesis are referred to as anabolic. They are counterbalanced by mechanisms called catabolic, which are responsible for the degradation and decomposition of complex structures such as proteins or fats. A healthy person is always in a state of metabolic equilibrium where both anabolic and catabolic processes are balanced. AS are substances whose structure is very similar to the male sex hormone testosterone and can therefore also affect tissue formation.
Synthetic ASs were developed by appropriate modification of the testosterone molecule. By this modification, different types have been created which have to some extent different properties. Thus, the individual steroid formulations have different ratios of the quality of androgenic (male-enhancing) and anabolic (tissue-promoting) effects. The attempt to suppress the androgenic action of testosterone has led to the development and production of so-called testosterone. anabolic steroids, but never suppressed androgenic properties. For example, some ASs at least support an increase in male characteristics (eg Anavar), which is therefore more used by women. Unfortunately, such ASs do not support the formation of new tissues too much. This led to the view that these two effects were indivisible.
Modification of testosterone helped create ASs that are processed more slowly by the body. If you take oral testosterone (not chemically modified) orally, it will be immediately absorbed by the liver. If taken orally, it passes through the liver first and then into the skeletal muscle. Up to 98% of free testosterone is already absorbed during the first pass through the liver. Free testosterone injected is first delivered to the muscles and then to the liver. However, even here, 98% of free testosterone is absorbed as early as its first pass through the liver.
In order to be effective, ASs must be able (before they become ineffective) to circulate several times. Modification of the testosterone molecule and addition of a group of elements (an alkyl group) to a specific site (known as the alpha position - also referred to as the 17th carbon position) produced ASs that are more difficult to process for the liver (alpha-alkyl). ASs based on this principle are able to pass through the liver several times before becoming ineffective. This allows AS to enter the muscles, act there and have the desired effects. But the liver is then forced to work much more. Most oral ASs were created in this and a very similar way, so they can cause liver disorders.
Injectable ASs are not based on this basis and are therefore generally safer and generally do not pose a hazard to the liver. However, some ASs, such as e.g. stanozolol (produced in both oral and injectable form) are chemically comparable to oral and therefore have the same effects (unfortunately also undesirable).
Testosterone esters play a major role in injectable AS. An ester is a compound produced by the reaction between a fatty acid and an alcohol (in the case of AS, esterification of the steroid molecule at the 17th carbon position). Esterification makes testosterone effective, although before it is absorbed by the liver, it makes only one pass through the bloodstream. Most of the injectable ASs are administered intramuscularly, so the active substance enters the muscles rather than the liver. These esters work longer and are safer than oral alpha-alkyl steroids.
The greater the number of carbons the fatty acid will have, the slower the release of the steroid ester from the muscle injection site into the circulation and the longer the biological activity of the injectable preparation. Therefore, it is possible to give injections at longer intervals. The most commonly used acids for esterification include (the names are in the form of acid salts):
propionate (3 carbons)
enanthate (7 carbons)
cypionate (8 carbons)
phenylpropionate (9 carbons)
decanoate (10 carbons)
undecanoate (11 carbons)
laurate (12 carbons)
hexyloxyphenyl propionate (15 carbons)
Few esters (e.g., methenolone acetate and testosterone undecanoate) can be administered orally. It is not entirely clear why methenolone acetate is also effective orally. Testosterone undecanoate enters the bloodstream through the lymphatic system and thus the liver largely bypasses. These two esters represent less stress on the liver than other oral steroids.
Protein anabolism leads to a reduction of urea excretion (a waste product of protein metabolism) without concomitant changes in uric acid, ammonia and nitrogen excretion. In addition, the excretion of phosphate, chloride, calcium, sodium and potassium is reduced. However, when the nitrogen balance returns to normal, the anabolic effect does not continue. At this point, the degradation phase occurs.
As soon as steroid administration is stopped, a “feedback shock” usually occurs, accompanied by a negative nitrogen balance and a significant decrease in body weight. The level of impact depends on the type of medications used, the length of their administration, the dosage, their total amount and the physiological condition of the individual.
Processing anabolic steroids in the body
If we want steroids to work, they must be contained and processed by individual cells. The anabolic steroid binds to the specific receptor in the cytosol of a cell, which in part is made up of a protein. Upon activation of the hormone-receptor complex, the complex is translocated to the nucleus of the cell where it binds to the appropriate chromatin site, and protein synthesis may subsequently occur. Receptors have the ability to recognize AS, so they can bind the steroid molecule and allow cells to process AS.
Under normal conditions, the skeletal muscle receptors are saturated with naturally produced testosterone molecules. Therefore, under normal conditions, AS compounds have only a minor influence on strength and muscle development. However, exercise increases the number of unsaturated receptors. This also increases the body's ability to process AS, which also increases the effects of steroids at all. Steroid users need to add heavy training with a good quality diet, otherwise they will not make any significant progress.
Women have more unsaturated receptors because they have lower levels of naturally produced testosterone. Therefore, they are also more sensitive to AS.
Irrespective of the amount of training, there is a point at which all the skeletal muscle receptors are already saturated. Once you've reached this point, further incremental doses will never bring you to the desired results. Unfortunately, these higher doses then saturate receptors in other parts of the body (prostate, heart, testes ...). It is the abundance of such receptors that cause a different (deleterious) physiological effect of AS.
Testosterone is a naturally produced steroid, ie anabolic tissue-forming hormone. Conversely, cortisol is a catabolic hormone "destroying" tissue. These two hormones constantly keep tissue growth under control. When the brain detects that tissue growth is needed, it begins to increase testosterone production and decrease cortisol production. However, this process also works the other way around.
Steroids are machines of strong muscle growth because they promote their growth in two effective ways. Indeed, ASs increase the rate of formation of new muscle cells while blocking the effects of cortisol. Muscle cells contain receptors that are capable of receiving molecules of various forms. AS and cortisol molecules have a similar form, therefore receptors can receive both AS and cortisol. The hormone must first reach the receptor in order to use its effects. When steroids are used, the amount of anabolic hormones circulating in the bloodstream far exceeds the amount of catabolic hormones, and so most of the receptors that are capable of recruiting these hormones are already full of molecules that have anabolic effects. Thus, anabolic molecules do not allow for catabolic entry into receptors, thereby increasing production of new muscle cells.
However, the whole thing has one hook!
The body continues to produce catabolic molecules, mainly in the form of cortisol. The level of cortisol in the blood is constantly increasing because its molecules cannot be processed at receptors that are already full of AS molecules. Blood levels of anabolic and catabolic molecules are balanced. When the receptor is released, there is then an equal chance of being refilled with an anabolic or catabolic molecule. Finally, the receptors will contain half anabolic and half catabolic molecules. At this point, further muscle growth is impossible. plateau.
A bodybuilder whose growth has already stopped may then decide to increase the steroid dose to break the rising cortisol level in the blood. Unfortunately, this option offers only a temporary solution. This is because the next plateau is coming soon and again further dose escalation becomes absurd.
Some bodybuilders therefore choose not to risk their health by increasing their doses and opt for immediate discontinuation. But suddenly you should never let a “shock therapy” break! This leads to an impact where the catabolic molecules are far beyond the anabolic molecules. The bulk of the receptors are filled with a catabolic molecule and in a very short time a significant amount of muscle is lost.
You can regulate cortisol levels by using a pyramid dosing system. This system allows you to gain and maintain mass by actually balancing catabolic and anabolic processes in the body.
Side Effects Of Anabolic Steroids
Of course, the use of AS exposes you to a potential risk. Usually, after a period of steroid discontinuation, the organism returns to its natural function. Unless you are a fan of “kamikaze style”, most of the side effects of steroids are not very pronounced. These are mostly called. cosmetic defects (increased sweating, the occurrence of acne, male baldness ...). However, there are also side effects whose effects are long-term (or permanent) and require specialist medical attention.
The most common side effects are:
an impact on gonadal function
affect the activity of the prostate
incidence of acne and possible skin disorders
gynecomastia (increased levels of estrogen causes the formation of breast tissue of female
impaired kidney and cardiovascular system
Various forms of baldness
development of disease in terms of hereditary disposition
negative impact on growth cartilaginous tissue and bone
effect on behavior (psychotic symptoms)
increased hair growth
and other negative effects (similar to men)
Use of anabolic steroids
Steroids are administered over a period of time in the so-called. cycles, ie a certain number of weeks are administered and the same or more weeks are not used. This logical procedure is necessary to achieve maximum effect as well as maximum health protection. These include, in particular, the "cleansing" of androgen receptors in the body, the restoration of natural testosterone production, the modification of the function of the liver and other organs.
Generally, the AS cycling time should be:
rather longer for volume training
rather shorter for speed-strength disciplines
for beginners rather shorter
It starts at 3 weeks and is gradually added over a period of up to 8 weeks. In
extreme cases, 12-week cycles are used for multiple repetitions.
A prolonged period of continuous administration is particularly useful for preparations that may induce an
increase in myofibrils, but only to increase overall health prevention and control.
in women rather shorter, about 4 weeks (longer application time may induce virilizing
The pauses between cycles will be:
for a 3-week cycle, the pause is about 4-7 weeks, ie about 4-5 cycles per year
for a 4-6-week cycle, the pause is 8 weeks, ie about 3-4 cycles per year
for a 12-week cycle the pause is about 12 weeks, ie about 2 cycles per year
Many cycles of AS are practiced in cycles:
nailing - trial and error
mixing - mixing different types of steroids
accumulation - concomitant administration of more drugs
narrowing - gradual reduction of AS intake with the use of preparations to restore the
body's natural functions (proviron, clomid, HCG)
When shifting into the very first cycle, mostly smaller doses are used. Men achieve very good results at doses of about 10-15 mg / day at the peak, women at about 4-5 mg / day. In subsequent cycles, the doses are gradually increased while checking health status (at least liver tests).
In general, androgenic AS (ie, preparations related to male sex hormones): the
anabolic effect usually occurs at a dose of about 2mg / day, the
highest effect in men at an average dose of around 30mg / day, ie 0.25-0.35
mg / kg of TH. With this amount, the anabolic effect is high and the health risk is generally acceptable
from the male athlete's point of view.
in terms of virilization risk, the dose should not exceed 3-5 mg / day for women
with a strong virilising effect, and may be as low as
10-20 mg / day for products that weakly virilize
generally the maximum single daily dose for men is reported on average about 0.5-1
mg / kg / day peak. But there is already a significant health risk.
Higher doses (such as those mentioned above) produce an anabolic effect only slightly higher. There was no increase in anabolic effect at doses above 1 mg / kg TH, but the health risk and the profitability of who sold the product to you (even with the recommended dosage) increased very quickly. That's right: higher doses are not effective, the optimum is 30-50mg per person per day. Using 700-1200 mg / day is nonsense! This “kamikaze style” leads to only two results: you
will be blocked by the intracellular androgen receptors, ie where the muscle gets the command
to grow you
gamble with your own health
V praxi odskúšaný výsledok je s OXYMETHOLONOM (zaručený laboratórnym rozborom) začať na 2-5 mg a každý deň pridávať 2 mg. Vrchol bol po 14 dňoch na 30-35mg. Prírastok bol 7 kg, po superkompenzácií s kreatínom ďalší 1 kg. Aj keby ste brali 1200 mg, vyšší prírastok nedocielite (teoreticky by ste mali dosiahnúť štyridsaťnásobok t.j. 280-320 kg). Výsledok tohoto testu podporil tvrdenie, že organizmus zrejme nie je schopný vstrebať viac ako 300 mg steroidov denne orálnou cestou. Vyššie dávky musíte aplikovať injekčne.
When choosing a preparation, it is necessary to take into account: the
combination of several types of products is always better (lower health risk
and stronger anabolic efficacy), usually steroids synergize with each other. In addition,
some steroids appear to affect some muscle parts more, other less
potent antigonadotrophins are assigned either to the entire cycle or to its second (descending)
in men, if used, preparations with a tendency to aromatize, to the first
half of the cycle. These are then suddenly discontinued in the middle of the cycle. Conversely, in the second half of the cycle,
little or no flavoring will be included
in women, if used, preparations with a tendency to virilization and gestagenicity are included in the first
half of the cycle. Substances where these effects are minimized are used in the second half of the cycle.
Most often, the dosage of AS is converted to a total amount of mg received per week. The question is, of course, how far the steroid recipient is able to go, ie how much to risk. Because it is clear that the larger the doses he receives, the greater the risk he is exposed to. Many guys try to eliminate the harmful effects by using larger amounts